Once you have the Apache Shibboleth Module installed and configured, you can add Apache Auth directives to any appropriate content-control block ( <Directory>,<File>, <Location>) in your virtual host or in .htaccess files.
To require Shibboleth authentication, you can start with these directives:
The official Shibboleth wiki has list of AuthConfig options you can use. You may find this list of Content Settings helpful which can be set with ShibRequestSetting. For example, if you want to redirect any non-ssl request for a protected page to your SSL port, you can use (POST requests will not work with this method):